Original Research

The effects of midazolam and butorphanol, administered alone or combined, on the dose and quality of anaesthetic induction with alfaxalone in goats

T. Brighton Dzikiti, Gareth E. Zeiler, Loveness N. Dzikiti, Eva R. Garcia
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 85, No 1 | a1047 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v85i1.1047 | © 2014 T. Brighton Dzikiti, Gareth E. Zeiler, Loveness N. Dzikiti, Eva R. Garcia | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 30 April 2013 | Published: 19 August 2014

About the author(s)

T. Brighton Dzikiti, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Gareth E. Zeiler, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Loveness N. Dzikiti, School of Health Systems and Public Health, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Eva R. Garcia, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa


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Abstract

Goats are rarely anaesthetised; consequently, scant information is available on the efficacy of anaesthetic drugs in this species. Alfaxalone is a relatively new anaesthetic agent, of which the efficacy in goats has not yet been studied. In this study, the sedative and alfaxalonesparing effects of midazolam and butorphanol, administered alone or concomitantly, in goats were assessed. Eight clinically healthy goats, four does and four wethers, were enlisted in a randomised crossover manner to receive intramuscular sedative treatments consisting of saline 0.05 mL/kg, or midazolam 0.30 mg/kg, or butorphanol 0.10 mg/kg, or a combination ofmidazolam 0.30 mg/kg with butorphanol 0.10 mg/kg before intravenous induction of general anaesthesia with alfaxalone. Following induction, the goats were immediately intubated and the quality of anaesthesia and basic physiological cardiorespiratory and blood-gas parameters were assessed until the goats had recovered from anaesthesia. The degree of sedation, quality of induction and recovery were scored. When compared with saline (3.00 mg/kg), midazolam,administered alone or with butorphanol, caused a statistically significant increased level of sedation and a reduction in the amount of alfaxalone required for induction (2.00 mg/kg and 1.70 mg/kg, respectively). Butorphanol alone (2.30 mg/kg) did not cause significant changes in level of sedation or alfaxalone-induction dose. During induction and recovery, the goats were calm following all treatments, including the control group. Cardiorespiratory and blood gasparameters were maintained within clinically acceptable limits. The present study showed that midazolam, administered alone or combined with butorphanol, produces a degree of sedation that significantly reduces the dose of alfaxalone required for induction of general anaesthesia in goats, without causing any major adverse cardiorespiratory effects.

Keywords

Goats; Anaesthesia; Alfaxalone; Midazolam; Butorphanol

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