Original Research

Bovine trypanosome species prevalence and farmers’ trypanosomiasis control methods in south-western Uganda

Richard A. Alingu, Dennis Muhanguzi, Ewan MacLeod, Charles Waiswa, Jenna Fyfe
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 85, No 1 | a1094 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v85i1.1094 | © 2014 Richard A. Alingu, Dennis Muhanguzi, Ewan MacLeod, Charles Waiswa, Jenna Fyfe | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 06 August 2013 | Published: 28 October 2014

About the author(s)

Richard A. Alingu, National Livestock Resources Research Institute, Uganda
Dennis Muhanguzi, College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Uganda
Ewan MacLeod, Division of Pathway Medicine & Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Charles Waiswa, College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Uganda
Jenna Fyfe, Division of Pathway Medicine & Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom


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Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mbarara district, south-western Uganda in May 2012 to determine the burden of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in the semi-intensive dairy production systems where pyrethroid acaricides are frequently used in the control of tick-borne diseases (TBDs). A total of 295 cattle blood samples were taken and analysed using a single pair of primers previously designed to amplify internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of trypanosome ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA). A structured questionnaire was administered to 55 participating livestock farmers to generate data on acaricide and trypanocidal drug usage. The overall prevalence of trypanosome species was 2.4% (95% CI; 1.0% – 4.8%); Trypanosoma vivax was the most predominant species (2.0%; 95% CI; 0.7% – 4.4%). A single mixed infection of T. vivax and Trypanosoma brucei s.l. was detected. All the participating farmers used acaricides for tsetse and TBD control; 89.1% of the acaricides used were pyrethroids. About half of the farmers used trypanocidal drugs, mainly diminazene formulations (Berenil®). Low prevalence of trypanosomes in examined samples is most likely related to the frequent use of pyrethroid insecticides, trypanocides and restricted grazing (paddocking and tethering). These rigorous management practices are geared towards optimising production of exotic dairy breeds kept in this region that are highly susceptible to TBDs and AAT.

Keywords

Acaracides, ITS1-PCR, South-West Uganda, Trypanosome species prevalence, Trypanocidal drugs

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Crossref Citations

1. A meta-analysis of the prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis in some African countries from 2000 to 2018
F. Ebhodaghe, C. Isaac, J.A. Ohiolei
Preventive Veterinary Medicine  vol: 160  first page: 35  year: 2018  
doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.09.018