Original Research

Anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of a diazepam-ketamine combination compared with propofol in dogs

Jacques P. Ferreira, T. Brighton Dzikit, Gareth E. Zeiler, Roxanne Buck, Bruce Nevill, Bruce Gummow, Lynette Bester
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 86, No 1 | a1258 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v86i1.1258 | © 2015 Jacques P. Ferreira, T. Brighton Dzikit, Gareth E. Zeiler, Roxanne Buck, Bruce Nevill, Bruce Gummow, Lynette Bester | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 18 December 2014 | Published: 01 June 2015

About the author(s)

Jacques P. Ferreira, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
T. Brighton Dzikit, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Gareth E. Zeiler, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Roxanne Buck, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Bruce Nevill, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Bruce Gummow, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa; College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Australia
Lynette Bester, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa


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Abstract

Induction of anaesthesia occasionally has been associated with undesirable behaviour in dogs. High quality of induction of anaesthesia with propofol has been well described while in contrast variable induction and recovery quality has been associated with diazepam-ketamine. In this study, anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of diazepam-ketamine combination with propofol alone were compared in dogs undergoing elective orchidectomy. Thirty-six healthy adult male dogs were used. After habitus scoring (simple descriptive scale [SDS]), the dogs were sedated with morphine and acepromazine. Forty minutes later a premedication score (SDS) was allocated and general anaesthesia was induced using a combination of diazepam-ketamine (Group D/K) or propofol (Group P) and maintained with isoflurane. Scores for the quality of induction, intubation and degree of myoclonus were allocated (SDS). Orchidectomy was performed after which recovery from anaesthesia was scored (SDS) and times to extubation and standing were recorded. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Kappa Reliability and Kendall Tau B tests. Both groups were associated with acceptable quality of induction and recovery from anaesthesia. Group P, however, was associated with a poorer quality of induction (p = 0.014), prolonged induction period (p = 0.0018) and more pronounced myoclonus (p = 0.003), but had better quality of recovery (p = 0.000002) and shorter recovery times (p = 0.035) compared with Group D/K. Diazepam-ketamine and propofol are associated with acceptable induction and recovery from anaesthesia. Propofol had inferior anaesthetic induction characteristics, but superior and quicker recovery from anaesthesia compared with diazepam-ketamine.

Keywords

anaesthesia; induction; recovery; scores; propofol; diazepam; ketamine; dogs

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