Case Report

Perineal urethrostomy to treat obstructive urolithiasis in a captive hand-raised steenbok (Raphicerus campestris)

Luke A. Poore, Ross Hendry, Johan Steyl, Silke Pfitzer
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 88 | a1536 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v88i0.1536 | © 2017 Luke A. Poore, Ross Hendry, Johan Steyl, Silke Pfitzer | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 05 May 2017 | Published: 08 December 2017

About the author(s)

Luke A. Poore, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Ross Hendry, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Johan Steyl, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Silke Pfitzer, Department of Production Animal Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa


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Abstract

The steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) is a small antelope of the family Bovidae native to the African continent. Urolithiasis, the formation of urinary calculi in the urinary tract, can be caused by a variety of factors such as diet, dehydration, infection and anatomical predisposition. Urolithiasis, with uroliths identified as magnesium calcium phosphate carbonate in composition, was diagnosed in a hand-reared 5-month-old steenbok. Perineal urethrostomy was performed as a component of the broad treatment regime that included fluid therapy, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. However, the animal died 4 days later as a result of systemic hypoxia and energy depletion because of stress and cachexia. The challenges of post-surgical treatment, the importance of positive energy balance in small ruminants under stressful circumstances, as well as the role of diet of hand-reared antelope in predisposition to urolith formation are highlighted.

Keywords

steenbok; raphicerus campestris; urolithiasis; perineal urethrostomy; magnesium; calcium; phosphate; carbonate; energy balance

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