Original Research

Prevalence of Salmonella in juvenile dogs affected with parvoviral enteritis

Willem J. Botha, Johan P. Schoeman, Stanley L. Marks, Zandri Whitehead, Cornelius H. Annandale
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 89 | a1731 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v89i0.1731 | © 2018 Willem J. Botha, Johan Petrus Schoeman, Stanley Leon Marks, Zandri Whitehead, Cornelius Henry Annandale | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 05 September 2018 | Published: 05 December 2018

About the author(s)

Willem J. Botha, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Johan P. Schoeman, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Stanley L. Marks, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California, United States
Zandri Whitehead, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Cornelius H. Annandale, Department of Production Animal Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa


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Abstract

Salmonellosis is a disease of major zoonotic importance and canine parvovirus is a potentially fatal cause of canine enteritis with a world-wide distribution. Persistent isolation of Salmonella during routine environmental sampling surveys of a hospital ward, reserved for the treatment of dogs with canine parvovirus infection, prompted investigation into a possible source. We hypothesised that dogs affected by canine parvovirus would have a higher prevalence of faecal salmonellae compared to an apparently healthy cohort. Seventy-four client-owned dogs naturally infected with canine parvovirus and 42 apparently healthy client-owned dogs were included in the study. This prospective, longitudinal, observational study was conducted over an 18-month period. Fresh faecal samples were collected from dogs aged 6 weeks to 9 months diagnosed with canine parvovirus infection and admitted for treatment, and from apparently healthy dogs presented for vaccination or routine hospital procedures. Faeces were submitted for the isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotyping of salmonellae. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding was 22% and 31% for the affected and apparently healthy dogs, respectively, which was not statistically different. No significant associations between Salmonella status and possible risk factors or continuous variables such as age, body weight and duration of hospitalisation were identified. All the Salmonella isolates (n = 32) were resistant to penicillin G, lincomycin and tylosin. Salmonellae from nine different serotypes were identified. The prevalence of Salmonella shedding in both groups was higher than that commonly reported, yet similar to those in previous reports on young dogs, shelter dogs or dogs fed a raw meat diet.

Keywords

Salmonellosis; parvovirus; diarrhoea; canine; enteropathogen

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