Original Research

Prevalence and risk factors contributing to antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from poultry meat products in South Africa, 2015–2016

Vashnee Govender, Evelyn Madoroba, Kudakwashe Magwedere, Geoffrey Fosgate, Lazarus Kuonza
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 90 | a1738 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v90i0.1738 | © 2019 Vashnee Govender, Evelyn Madoroba, Kudakwashe Magwedere, Geoffrey Fosgate, Lazarus Kuonza | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 19 September 2018 | Published: 29 August 2019

About the author(s)

Vashnee Govender, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and, South African Field Epidemiology Training Programme, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham Johannesburg, South Africa; and, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Directorate of Veterinary Public Health, Pretoria, South Africa
Evelyn Madoroba, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Feed and Food Analysis Laboratory, Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa
Kudakwashe Magwedere, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Directorate of Veterinary Public Health, Pretoria, South Africa
Geoffrey Fosgate, Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa
Lazarus Kuonza, South African Field Epidemiology Training Programme, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham Johannesburg, South Africa


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Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, has been detected in food products of animal origin globally. Limited data have been reported on the factors contributing to antibiotic resistance of food-borne pathogens in South Africa. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus, including antibiotic-resistant strains, in poultry meat products as well as the evaluation of potential risk factors for contamination of poultry meat products with antibiotic-resistant S. aureus isolates. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted in municipalities located across the nine provinces of South Africa, which included abattoirs, meat processing facilities, retail outlets and cold stores at the major ports of entry into South Africa. Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various poultry meat products were tested for susceptibility to 14 antibiotic compounds representing 10 antibiotic classes using the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Potential risk factors were evaluated using a logistic regression model. Of the 311 samples tested, 34.1% (n = 106) were positive for S. aureus (95% confidence interval [CI], 28.9% – 39.7%). Seventy-two of the 106 isolates were randomly selected for antibiotic sensitivity testing. Twenty-one per cent (n = 15) of the isolates selected for sensitivity testing were methicillin-resistant strains (95% CI, 12.2% – 32.0%). Multi-drug resistance was detected in 22.2% (n = 16) of these isolates tested (95% CI, 13.3% – 33.6%). Origin of the product (p = 0.160), type of meat product (p = 0.962), type of facility (p = 0.115) and facility hygiene practices (p = 0.484) were not significantly associated with contamination of poultry meat products with methicillin-resistant strains. The study provides baseline data for further studies on antibiotic resistance risk assessments for food-borne pathogens, including S. aureus, which should guide the implementation plans of the South African National Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy Framework, 2017–2024.

Keywords

Staphylococcus aureus; antimicrobial resistance; poultry; meat safety; MRSA; methicillin-resistant S. aureus

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