Case Report

Testicular disorder of sexual development with cryptorchidism, penile hypoplasia and hypospadias in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa)

Janine Meuffels, Ilse Luther-Binoir, Willem Daffue, Francois Deacon, Emily P. Mitchell
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 91 | a1971 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v91i0.1971 | © 2020 Janine Meuffels, Ilse Luther-Binoir, Willem Daffue, Francois Deacon, Emily P. Mitchell | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 18 March 2019 | Published: 26 March 2020

About the author(s)

Janine Meuffels, Department of Production Animal Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
Ilse Luther-Binoir, GEOsperm – Wildlife Reproduction and Biotechnology Services, Brits, South Africa; and Profetura – Alliance for Wildlife Conservation Breeding, Hamburg, Germany
Willem Daffue, Kroonstad Animal Hospital, Kroonstad, South Africa
Francois Deacon, Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Emily P. Mitchell, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa


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Abstract

Disorders of sexual development (DSD) in wild mammals are rarely described. A male South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) was identified with bilateral cryptorchidism. The testes were intra-abdominal, smaller and less ovoid than in normal male giraffes. The right testis was situated more cranially than the left and connected to a longer deferent duct with normal ampullae. One distended vesicular gland filled with mucoid material was identified. A short penis, situated in the perineal area, was directed caudally and presented hypospadias. Histologically, testicular hypoplasia was present; the epididymis tubules contained no spermatozoa and the deferent duct and vesicular gland were inflamed. The blood testosterone concentration was 16.27 nmol/L and oestrone sulphate concentration was 0.03 ng/mL. The aetiology of the abnormalities is unknown.

Keywords

cryptorchidism; disorder of sexual development; Giraffa camelopardalis; hypospadias; penile abnormality

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