Original Research

Haemostatic changes associated with fluid resuscitation in canine parvoviral enteritis

Zandri Whitehead, Amelia Goddard, Willem J. Botha, Paolo Pazzi
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 91 | a2005 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v91i0.2005 | © 2020 Zandri Whitehead, Amelia Goddard, Willem J. Botha, Paolo Pazzi | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 28 July 2019 | Published: 29 July 2020

About the author(s)

Zandri Whitehead, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and, Tygerberg Animal Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
Amelia Goddard, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Willem J. Botha, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and, Panorama Veterinary Hospital and Specialist Centre, Cape Town, South Africa
Paolo Pazzi, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa


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Abstract

The haemostatic status of dogs with canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis, within 24 h of admission after initial fluid administration, has been described previously, but the haemostatic status at admission and after standard fluid resuscitation, as well as after initial fluid redistribution, has not been investigated previously. The objective of this study was to characterise the haemostatic status at admission and describe the effect of crystalloid fluid resuscitation on haemostatic variables in dogs with CPV enteritis. Twenty-seven client-owned, hospitalised dogs with confirmed natural CPV infection and 15 healthy age-matched controls were included in a prospective, observational clinical study. The volume of resuscitation fluid, haematocrit (HCT), platelet count, thromboelastography (TEG) variables, antithrombin (AT) activity, fibrinogen- and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were measured in all dogs at admission, after fluid resuscitation and, in 10 dogs, after receiving an additional 3 hours of maintenance-rate crystalloid fluids. For the CPV group at admission, the median TEG reaction time (R) and maximum amplitude (MA) or clot strength, as well as the median HCT, fibrinogen and CRP concentrations, were significantly increased compared to the controls. After fluid resuscitation, median R was significantly shorter, MA significantly increased and HCT and AT activity significantly decreased compared to admission values. The haemostatic variables remained unchanged after 3 h of maintenance-rate crystalloid therapy. The increased clot strength present in dogs with CPV enteritis at admission was exacerbated after fluid resuscitation and persisted for hours after large-volume crystalloid fluid administration.

Keywords

Parvoviral enteritis; haemostasis; thromboelastography; veterinary science; fluid resuscitation

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