Research Note

Sex-based comparison of limb segmentation in ostriches aged 14 months with and without tibiotarsal rotation : research note

R.G. Cooper, H. Naranowicz, E. Maliszewska, A. Tennett, J.O. Horbaczuk
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 79, No 3 | a261 | DOI: | © 2008 R.G. Cooper, H. Naranowicz, E. Maliszewska, A. Tennett, J.O. Horbaczuk | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 29 May 2008 | Published: 29 May 2008

About the author(s)

R.G. Cooper,
H. Naranowicz,
E. Maliszewska,
A. Tennett,
J.O. Horbaczuk,

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The aim of this study was to propose equations to predict changes that occur over time in the angular position of the bones during motion and the angular velocity of the bones in forward motion as a consequence of tibiotarsal rotation (TTR) in ostriches aged 14 months.Twenty-four normal 14-month-old ostriches (12 cocks and 12 hens) and 20 birds with TTR (9 cocks and 11 hens) were used in the study. Daily readings of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, the lengths of the different segments of the legs and wings, the perpendicular height from the top of the torso to ground level and the length of the erect neck were recorded. Measurements of the degree of valgus deformity in the left foot were made where applicable. TTR hens and cocks were smaller in stature than normal birds. Comparing TTR hens and cocks, the toe, claw, humerus, perpendicular height and angle of rotation were larger in cocks, indicating a larger body in cocks. Hens were more severely affected by TTR. We suggest that the equations used in this study will assist in measuring movement of ostriches and how movement is compromised by overcrowding and TTR. Birds suffering from TTR may experience an increased degree of stress due to movement restrictions in confinement.


Extension; Equation; Gait; Ostrich; Stress; Tibiotarsal Rotation


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