Original Research

Tusklessness and tusk fractures in free-ranging African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana)

G. Steenkamp, S.M. Ferreira, M.N. Bester
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 78, No 2 | a294 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v78i2.294 | © 2007 G. Steenkamp, S.M. Ferreira, M.N. Bester | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 01 June 2007 | Published: 01 June 2007

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G. Steenkamp,
S.M. Ferreira,
M.N. Bester,

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Abstract

The incidence of tusklessness varies between free-ranging African elephant populations. Sex-linked genetic drift predicts 2 outcomes - the condition becomes fixed and sex-specific incidences diverge when populations are small and/or heavily poached. By contrast, for large and intact populations, tusklessness diminishes and there is no variation between sexes. We tested these predictions by comparing sex-specific incidences between 15 populations: a small one with a skewed founder effect towards tusklessness; 5 that had experienced intense levels of poaching; 2 that had been subjected to non-selective culling and 7 that are relatively pristine. Patterns of rainfall were studied of tusk fractures amongst these populations to correct for any effect that acquired tusklessness may have on our predictions. The incidence of tusk fractures was related to annual rainfall, but the mechanism that leads to an increase of the condition in drier areas was not clear. Incidences of tusk fractures in free-ranging populations implied that the frequency of acquired bilateral tusklessness is low and should not affect our results. All males had tusks. Tusklessness in females was high in the small skewed founder population and some of those where there was a history of poaching. The incidence is expected to decline if the residual population is large.

Keywords

African Savanna Elephant; Free-Ranging Populations; Tusk Fractures; Tusklessness

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