Original Research

Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa

J. H. Williams, E. van Dykb, P. J. Nel, E. Lane, E. Van Wilpe, R. G. Bengis, L-M. de Klerk-Lorist, J. van Heerden
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 82, No 2 | a42 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v82i2.42 | © 2011 J. H. Williams, E. van Dykb, P. J. Nel, E. Lane, E. Van Wilpe, R. G. Bengis, L-M. de Klerk-Lorist, J. van Heerden | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 11 April 2011 | Published: 11 April 2011

About the author(s)

J. H. Williams, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa., South Africa
E. van Dykb, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa., South Africa
P. J. Nel, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa. Free State Department of Economic Development, Tourism and Environmental Affairs, Private Bag X20801, Bloemfontein, 9300 South Africa., South Africa
E. Lane, Research and Scientific Services, National Zoological Gardens, PO Box 754, Pretoria, 0001 South Africa, South Africa
E. Van Wilpe, Electron Microscopy Unit, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa., South Africa
R. G. Bengis, National Department of Agriculture, PO Box 12, Skukuza, Kruger National Park, 1350 South Africa., South Africa
L-M. de Klerk-Lorist, National Department of Agriculture, PO Box 12, Skukuza, Kruger National Park, 1350 South Africa., South Africa
J. van Heerden, Kimberley Veterinary Clinic, 16 Dalham Road, Kimberley, 8301 South Africa., South Africa

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Abstract

Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope presented with a solitary large lesion just proximal to the right hind hoof, which recurred after excision, and was BPV-1 positive by RT-PCR. Other wart-like growths were present elsewhere on the body. The Cape mountain zebra either succumbed from their massive lesions or were euthanased or removed from the herd because of them. The lesions wereBPV-1 and/or -2 positive byRT-PCR. The buffalo lesions were wart-like papillomatous projections in the inguinal and udder region. Stratum granulosum cells that stained immunohistochemically positive in the various species appeared koilocyte-like, as described in human papillomaviral lesions.

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