Short Communication

Tremorgenic neuromycotoxicosis in 2 dogs ascribed to the ingestion of penitrem A and possibly roquefortine in rice contaminated with Penicillium crustosum : clinical communication

T.W. Naude, O.M. O'Brien, T. Rundberget, A.D.G. McGregor, C. Roux, A. Flåøyen
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 73, No 4 | a589 | DOI: | © 2002 T.W. Naude, O.M. O'Brien, T. Rundberget, A.D.G. McGregor, C. Roux, A. Flåøyen | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 06 July 2002 | Published: 06 July 2002

About the author(s)

T.W. Naude,
O.M. O'Brien,
T. Rundberget,
A.D.G. McGregor,
C. Roux,
A. Flåøyen,

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Two dogs developed alarming tremorgenic nervous stimulation shortly after ingesting discarded rice that had been forgotten in a refrigerator for an undetermined period and that was covered with a grey-green mould. Both dogs exhibited vomition followed by slight salivation, tremors and ataxia and 1 showed such severe agitation and seizures that it necessitated anaesthesia with thiopentone followed, on recovery, by xylazine. The other dog was only sedated with xylazine. They made an uneventful recovery. The rice vomitus yielded a pure culture of Penicillium crustosum. On chemical analysis it was negative for organochlorine, organophosphor and carbamate insecticides, as well as for strychnine, but contained 2.6 mg / g of the mycotoxins penitrem A as well as 34 mg / g of roquefortine as determined by LC-MS and confirmed by MS-MS. This is the 1st South African case of naturally occurring penitrem A toxicosis and also the 1st case where quantification of the levels of mycotoxins in dog vomitus is reported. The tremorgenicity of roquefortine and its contribution towards this syndrome, is questioned.


Dogs; Mouldy Rice; Neuromycotoxicosis; Penicillium Crustosum; Penitrem A; Roquefortine; Tremorgen


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