Original Research

Some cardiopulmonary effects of midazolam premedication in clenbuterol-treated bitches during surgical endoscopic examination of the uterus and ovariohysterectomy

G.F. Stegmann, L. Bester
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 72, No 1 | a606 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v72i1.606 | © 2001 G.F. Stegmann, L. Bester | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 09 July 2001 | Published: 09 July 2001

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G.F. Stegmann,
L. Bester,

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Midazolam was administered intravenously to 8 bitches in a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial before propofol induction of surgical anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane-in-oxygen during surgical endoscopic examination of the uterus and ovariohysterectomy. Clenbuterol was administered at the start of surgery to improve uterine muscle relaxation, and to facilitate endoscopic examination of the uterus. Ventilation was controlled. Induction of anaesthesia with propofol to obtain loss of the pedal reflex resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in minute volume and arterial oxygen partial pressure in the midazolam group. Apnoea also occurred in 50 % of dogs in the midazolam group. The dose for propofol in the midazolam group was 7.4 mg/kg compared to 9.5 mg/kg in the control. Minute volume was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in both groups during isoflurane maintenance, compared to the value after incremental propofol to obtain loss of the pedal reflex. Propofol induction resulted in a 25-26 % reduction in the mean arterial blood pressure in both groups, and the administration of clenbuterol at the start of surgery resulted in a transient, but statistically significant (P < 0.05), decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in the midazolam group during isoflurane anaesthesia. It is concluded that intravenous midazolam premedication did not adversely affect cardiovascular function during propofol induction, but intra-operative clenbuterol during isoflurane maintenance of anaesthesia may result in transient hypotension. Midazolam premedication may increase adverse respiratory effects when administered before propofol induction of anaesthesia.


Anaesthesia; Canine; Cardiopulmonary; Clenbuterol; Midazolam; Propofol


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doi: 10.1111/vaa.12038