Case Report

Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Part 1 : anaesthesia : case report

G.F. Stegmann, M. Hofmeyr, A. Olivier, E. Lane, D.H. Volkmann
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 72, No 4 | a660 | DOI: | © 2001 G.F. Stegmann, M. Hofmeyr, A. Olivier, E. Lane, D.H. Volkmann | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 09 July 2001 | Published: 09 July 2001

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G.F. Stegmann,
M. Hofmeyr,
A. Olivier,
E. Lane,
D.H. Volkmann,

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Anaesthesia was required in a heavily-pregnant, adult, free-ranging African black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis with a rectal prolapse for examination and possible treatment. The animal was immobilised with 4.5 mg etorphine and 60 mg azaperone. For continued observation, the immobilised animal was transported to a boma. Additional etorphine and azaperone were administered to keep the animal anaesthetised during treatment and transport. In addition, 15 mg nalorphine was administered during this time to improve ventilation and reduce muscle rigidity. Sixty hours later, in preparation for surgery, 2.5 mg etorphine and 40 mg azaperone were administered, followed by endotracheal intubation and halothane anaesthesia. During anaesthesia, a decrease in tidal volume was observed. Venous blood-gas analysis indicated a decrease in the oxygen partial pressure, and a mixed respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Cardiac arrest was preceded by an increase in heart rate and tidal volume after 80 min of inhalation anaesthesia.


Anaesthesia; Black Rhinoceros; Diceros Bicornis; Etorphine; Halothane; Midazolam; Pelvic Fracture; Rectal Prolapse


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